Sunday, 2 October 2016

Short Essays On Rural Oaxaca Mezcal Production - Part One, Focus on Hilarino Olivera Cruz

The rural mezcal producers of Oaxaca keep the tradition as pure as it was centuries ago. They pepper the villages and roadsides where tourists rarely venture. Their operations are a far cry from those of Benevá, Oro de Oaxaca, the brands of the Chagoya family, and the few designer labels vying with one another to corner the Manhattan sipping market.
Hilarino Olivera Cruz has a small fábrica de mezcal (mezcal "factory") near his hometown village of San Lorenzo Albarradas, about an hour and a quarter drive from the city of Oaxaca, en route to Hierve el Agua. But he and his wife María Sara don't just produce mezcal. They can't afford to rely on distilling alone to eke out their modest, working class existence. Out of the same premises they operate a tiny restaurant, El Tigre, without the benefit of electricity, employing their daughter-in-law Alma; María Sara also has a door-to-door Avon-style sales business from which she earns perhaps $50 or $70 a month; Hilarino together with their eldest son Claudio, Alma's husband, run a dump truck; and as is the custom with most craft-producing and other cottage industry families, they have their fields of milpa to tend, yielding corn for making tortillas, tamales and like products used to provide for personal consumption, and in the case of the Olivera family, also for restaurant use.
On the one hand hard working mezcaleros such as Hilarino are not permitted to export commercially, since they are not members of the regulatory body known as COMERCAM, yet on the other they struggle to maintain the artisanal, or pure, traditional hands-on nature of production, and resist the adulteration of their spirit through modern processing methods including the use of chemical additives ... for everyone's benefit.
You won't find Hilarino flogging his mezcal in downtown Oaxaca with the aid of heavily made-up, attractive, smiling teenage girls offering free tastings. Nor will you encounter him when taking a Sunday tour bus to Mitla or Tlacolula, and sauntering up to a fine oak bar for samples of cremas (sweet, mezcal-based products), jovens (un-aged mezcal) or what's represented to be five or ten-year-old añejos. The photo op that's provided will appear quaint enough, but won't come close to revealing the true history of the tradition, or the present reality of the struggle of the rural producer.
Hilarino's market is not the tourist trade, but rather residents of Oaxaca, Mitla, the nearby Mixe region, and of course his own community. The same as it was for his great-grandparents: "I remember the stories my parents and grandparents would tell, about how it actually was way back then," Hilarino reveals. "They were campesinos. They would harvest mainly wild agave known as tobalá. A caravan would set out, comprised of perhaps 10 or 15 mules or donkeys and an equal number of people helping out. Cousins, aunts and uncles would organize themselves and take the mezcal on what would be like a trade route, in pottery or metal receptacles, down into the valley and up throughout the mountains. Each animal would carry 3 containers, one on each side and another on top. My relatives would be gone for anywhere between a couple of days and two weeks, often returning home with 2 or 3 less mules ... that's how hard the journey was. Of course now it's much easier."
Easier is a relative term. Then it took two or three days to pulverize the baked agave prior to fermentation, hammering it with a wooden mallet made of tree burl. Now it's crushed by a horse or mule reluctantly pulling a multi-ton limestone wheel over it for a couple of hours, persuaded with the assistance of a crop-like piece of leather, or simply a stick ... and then it's time for the next batch.
Hilarino began learning how to make mezcal when he was about seven years old. Out of economic necessity he moved with his family to Mexico City at age 11, and remained there for the next 15 years. Upon return to Oaxaca some 14 years ago he built and opened his current facility, the mezcal operation with adjoining eatery. Initially his father worked the business with him, but about four years ago the elder Olivera opened up his own restaurant beside his son's, and since then they've been competitors of sorts. Hilarino explains: "But my father can't produce mezcal on his own, since I'm the one with the equipment (clay and brick still with copper attachments, pine fermenting vats, limestone wheel and ring for crushing, and beast of burden), so when he has a batch of agave he wants to process, we work out an arrangement for him to use my production facility." In fact one of Hilarino's brothers does the same thing, buying agave and renting Hilarino's premises to produce, and then selling to his own customers. Occasionally others from the village make similar arrangements with him.
Hilarino distills roughly 500 liters of mezcal a month. His average sale is about 5 liters. He owns a few different pieces of land upon which he has 5,000 plants, with exclusively the espadín variety of agave under cultivation. At least 90% of the mezcal produced in the state is espadín, the rest comprising mainly wild varieties.
The agave on Hilarino's fields is sufficient to service his regular trade. But occasionally an out-of-state client will request a large quantity of mezcal, perhaps 800 - 1,000 liters. "When this happens," he confesses, "I have to go out and buy mature plants from a neighbor, since I simply can't harvest my agave whenever a special order comes in. I have to wait those 8 - 10 years until the plants in a particular field are ready to be harvested." But the finished product maintains its quality and character, since Hilarino remains the producer, using his own equipment and particular recipe, and the agave, albeit not from his own fields, comes from the same San Lorenzo Albarradas micro-climate.
It's such cooperation between local producers, together with a united voice, which is required to ensure that small-scale, traditional production of quality mezcal continues. To this end Hilarino has recently joined the ninety-member association, Fabricantes y Expendedores del Tradicional Mezcal Oaxaqueño A.C.. Its function, at least in the estimation of Hilarino, is to maintain the artisanal nature of the industry; resist the move towards increased industrialization and the ability of large producers to label any spirit produced with or containing additives, as mezcal; and provide small producers with an opportunity to have their products exposed to and promoted in a wider marketplace.
But the reality is that the big producers and exporters of mezcal in Oaxaca need the mom and pop operations much more so than the latter need the former. Why? Because the little guy will always continue to survive by selling his mezcal in his local market, using the centuries old production technique, while the exporter relies on that age old tradition for his marketing ... and it's kept alive not through his 21st century innovations and "improvements" to productions methods, but rather by the Hilarinos in the state.

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Getting Along With People of Diverse Backgrounds

In society today, people of diverse backgrounds must learn to get along with each other. How can we accomplish this goal? Here are some ways people of diverse backgrounds can get along together.
These are by no means the graven in stones rules, but I will list my ways to get along and live in a steady, peaceful environment.
One of the many ways people can get along is by asking questions about a person or situation to better understand or to gain more insight about a person of a diverse background. When you ask questions, both you and the other person can better get along and live in harmony.
The second way get along with people of diverse backgrounds is to not prejudge people and their situation. This means when you first see someone, don't be so quick to say something bad about the person. Don't dislike someone just because you had one bad experience with that nationality in the past. We must learn that different people do different things.
The third way you can better get along with people of diverse backgrounds is by listening to others' opinions. Don't be so quick to shoot them down or ignore them. If their opinion makes a good point, don't disagree just because you want to be right. Take everybody's opinion just as if it was your own opinion.
The fourth way is by taking somebody for his or her character. This means don't prejudge them but rather take them for what kind of person they are. If they are nice, fun, and easy to get along with, judge them by their character. Accept them for their good qualities and not by how they look or dress. Don't label somebody for his or her outward appearance.
These qualities can be instilled in children at a young age. If the mother and the father teach them the right way, they will grow up to be good-hearted people. It's all up to us to put forth the effort to get along. That's why people of diverse backgrounds can get along together.

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How to Write a Constitutional Law Essay: Attack Sheet and Sample Essay

Constitutional Law is one of the most interesting classes in law school. Below is an attack sheet for handling these essay questions, as well as a sample essay.
1. Always discuss standing whether it is requested or not.
a. Individual has standing if they have suffered an injury, relationship between the injury suffered and the cause of action and addressing of the harm through the cause of action.
2. Then discuss State Action
a. State Action is required in order for 14th amendment applies only if there is an action by a state or local government, government officer or private person whose behavior meets the requirements for state action. State action can be found where the person or entity performs exclusive public functions or has significant state involvement in their activities.
3. Equal Protection
a. Equal protection analysis requires a two-part test facial discrimination or facially neutral but with a discriminatory intent or impact. Then you apply the level of scrutiny required.
b. In evaluating an equal protection clause violation the court will apply one of three standards in examining the governmental classification which discriminates against a certain group of people.
4. Privileges and Immunities
a. Forbid one state from arbitrarily discriminating against citizens of another state.
5. Interstate Commerce
a. If a law burdens IC, it is considered to be in violation of the DCC unless it is necessary to achieve an important government purpose.
b. Market Participant Exception- If the state acts as a market participant then it is exempt.
c. Dormant commerce clause you can regulate or burden IC so long as there is no discriminatory intent, balance, least burdensome and promotes a state interest.
Standing Arguments
A party will have standing if it can show that there is an injury in fact, that the harm was caused by the party, and that a favorable verdict will bring addressing issues. Here, the party brining the cause of action is an association representing various retailers who are impacted by the ordinance. In order for ARO to bring a cause for standing it will need to show that it has associational standing.
Associational Standing
Associational standing requires a showing of (i). Members would independently have standing to sue; i(i). Germane to organizations purpose; and (iii). Neither claim nor relief requires participation of individuals.
Independent Standing
Here, ARO can show that each of the individuals would have independent standing since there economic benefits were harmed as a result of the ordinance. The facts indicate that the ordinance "would cause hardship to store owners by depriving them of needed advertising revenue." Thus, each store owner would have independent standing.
Germane Purpose
The association's purpose is germane to the interest of the individuals. ARO was "formed to protect the economic interest of its member retailers" and its pursuit of the unconstitutionality of the ordinance would justify a germane purpose to the protection of such interest.
Participation of Individuals
Here, the members would not be required to take part in any manner to benefit from the outcome of the proceedings.
Thus, ARO would be able to set up standing through 3rd party or Associational Standing.
State Action
In order for a cause of action to be brought against a state it will require state action. Here, because the ordinance is drafted by the state this element will be satisfied.
Merits of 1st Amendment Claim
An ordinance will be void if it is vague. Legislators deem vagueness based on a reasonable person standard, where if a reasonable person could not understand its purpose then it is vague. Here, the ordinance specifically states that tobacco advertising will be banned on "billboards, store windows, any site within 1,000 feet of a school, and 'any other location where minors under the age of 18 years traditionally gather.'"
The state will surely argue that this is rather specific and thus a reasonable person can and will understand its purpose. This argument will likely hold and thus, an attack for vagueness will likely fail.
Over broad
A ordinance will be void if it over broad. Here, as stated supra the ordinance is very broad in terms of what can and can't be done. The ordinance bans any type of advertising through almost all commercials mediums. Thus, it is likely that an attack for the ordinance being over broad will succeed.
Content Based Regulation
Speech which imposes regulations based on content will be deemed a violation of the 1st amendment if the speech is considered protected speech. Protected speech which is being regulated based on content will require a strict scrutiny analysis. Here, the regulation is not imposing a regulation on the content of the speech, but rather where it can be published i.e. time, way and place restrictions.
Content Neutral Regulation
Speech which does not regulate the content will be subject to time place and manner restriction analysis.
Time, Place and Manner Restriction
If an ordinance bans speech or regulates speech based on time, place and manner restrictions a 2 part test will be administered, whereby the party seeking to enforce the ordinance will be required to show i. That is serves a legitimate government purpose; ii. It is narrowly tailored with other avenues of communication are left open.
Legitimate government purpose
Here, the state will argue that the purpose of the ordinance serves to prevent children from purchasing or being influenced to smoke. However, although this may be an important interest it is not enough since there are other available methods of preventing this. As AOR argues, "the best way to discourage young people form smoking is by directly restricting access to tobacco and not by banning all tobacco advertising." Thus although it is a legitimate government purpose there are less restrictive means of pursuing this initiative.
Narrowly tailored & Other avenues of communication
Here, the nature and language of the ordinance is very oppressive in terms of its regulations and is not narrowly tailored. Additionally, it does not leave open any other means of communication because it essentially blocks out any type of advertising.

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Globalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And Challenges

1. Overview of the Country and Primary Education System:
Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometres, including approximately 60,000 square kilometres of inland water. The population is about 32 million people with an average annual growth rate of 2.8 percent per year. Females comprise 51% of the total population. The majority of the population resides on the Mainland, while the rest of the population resides in Zanzibar. The life expectancy is 50 years and the mortality rate is 8.8%. The economy depends upon Agriculture, Tourism, Manufacturing, Mining and Fishing. Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounting for about two-thirds of Tanzania's exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; and manufacturing, 8.1% and mining, 1.7%. The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3+ consisting of pre-primary, primary school, ordinary level secondary education, Advanced level secondary, Technical and Higher Education. Primary School Education is compulsory whereby parents are supposed to take their children to school for enrollment. The medium of instruction in primary is Kiswahili.
One of the key objectives of the first president J.K. Nyerere was development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which to be ensuring that basic social services were available equitably to all members of society. In the education sector, this goal was translated into the 1974 Universal Primary Education Movement, whose goal was to make primary education universally available, compulsory, and provided free of cost to users to ensure it reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, large-scale increases in the numbers of primary schools and teachers were brought about through campaign-style programs with the help of donor financing. By the beginning of the 1980s, each village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross primary school enrollment reached nearly 100 percent, although the quality of education provided was not very high. From 1996 the education sector proceeded through the launch and operation of Primary Education Development Plan - PEDP in 2001 to date.
2. Globalization
To different scholars, the definition of globalization may be different. According to Cheng (2000), it may refer to the transfer, adaptation, and development of values, knowledge, technology, and behavioral norms across countries and societies in different parts of the world. The typical phenomena and characteristics associated with globalization include growth of global networking (e.g. internet, world wide e-communication, and transportation), global transfer and interflow in technological, economic, social, political, cultural, and learning areas, international alliances and competitions, international collaboration and exchange, global village, multi-cultural integration, and use of international standards and benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) and MoEC (2000).
3. Globalization in Education
In education discipline globalization can mean the same as the above meanings as is concern, but most specifically all the key words directed in education matters. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not only business and industry that are changing, education, too, is caught up in that new order. This situation provides each nation a new empirical challenge of how to respond to this new order. Since this responsibility is within a national and that there is inequality in terms of economic level and perhaps in cultural variations in the world, globalization seems to affect others positively and the vice versa (Bush 2005). In most of developing countries, these forces come as imposing forces from the outside and are implemented unquestionably because they do not have enough resource to ensure its implementation (Arnove 2003; Crossley & Watson, 2004).
There is misinterpretation that globalization has no much impact on education because the traditional ways of delivering education is still persisting within a national state. But, it has been observed that while globalization continues to restructure the world economy, there are also powerful ideological packages that reshape education system in different ways (Carnoy, 1999; Carnoy & Rhoten, 2002). While others seem to increase access, equity and quality in education, others affect the nature of educational management. Bush (2005) and Lauglo (1997) observe that decentralization of education is one of the global trends in the world which enable to reform educational leadership and management at different levels. They also argue that Decentralization forces help different level of educational management to have power of decision making related to the allocation of resources. Carnoy (1999) further portrays that the global ideologies and economic changes are increasingly intertwined in the international institutions that broadcast particular strategies for educational change. These include western governments, multilateral and bilateral development agencies and NGOs (Crossley & Watson 2004). Also these agencies are the ones which develop global policies and transfer them through funds, conferences and other means. Certainly, with these powerful forces education reforms and to be more specifically, the current reforms on school leadership to a large extent are influenced by globalization.
4. The School Leadership
In Tanzania the leadership and management of education systems and processes is increasingly seen as one area where improvement can and need to be made in order to ensure that education is delivered not only efficiently but also efficaciously. Although literatures for education leadership in Tanzania are inadequate, Komba in EdQual (2006) pointed out that research in various aspects of leadership and management of education, such as the structures and delivery stems of education; financing and alternative sources of support to education; preparation, nurturing and professional development of education leaders; the role of female educational leaders in improvement of educational quality; as will as the link between education and poverty eradication, are deemed necessary in approaching issues of educational quality in any sense and at any level. The nature of out of school factors that may render support to the quality of education e.g. traditional leadership institutions may also need to be looked into.
5. Impact of Globalization
As mentioned above, globalization is creating numerous opportunities for sharing knowledge, technology, social values, and behavioral norms and promoting developments at different levels including individuals, organizations, communities, and societies across different countries and cultures. Cheng (2000); Brown, (1999); Waters, (1995) pointed out the advantages of globalization as follows: Firstly it enable global sharing of knowledge, skills, and intellectual assets that are necessary to multiple developments at different levels. The second is the mutual support, supplement and benefit to produce synergy for various developments of countries, communities, and individuals. The third positive impact is creation of values and enhancing efficiency through the above global sharing and mutual support to serving local needs and growth. The fourth is the promotion of international understanding, collaboration, harmony and acceptance to cultural diversity across countries and regions. The fifth is facilitating multi-way communications and interactions, and encouraging multi-cultural contributions at different levels among countries.
The potential negative impacts of globalization are educationally concerned in various types of political, economic, and cultural colonization and overwhelming influences of advanced countries to developing countries and rapidly increasing gaps between rich areas and poor areas in different parts of the world. The first impact is increasing the technological gaps and digital divides between advanced countries and less developed countries that are hindering equal opportunities for fair global sharing. The second is creation of more legitimate opportunities for a few advanced countries to economically and politically colonize other countries globally. Thirdly is exploitation of local resources which destroy indigenous cultures of less advanced countries to benefit a few advanced countries. Fourthly is the increase of inequalities and conflicts between areas and cultures. And fifthly is the promotion of the dominant cultures and values of some advanced areas and accelerating cultural transplant from advanced areas to less developed areas.
The management and control of the impacts of globalization are related to some complicated macro and international issues that may be far beyond the scope of which I did not include in this paper. Cheng (2002) pointed out that in general, many people believe, education is one of key local factors that can be used to moderate some impacts of globalization from negative to positive and convert threats into opportunities for the development of individuals and local community in the inevitable process of globalization. How to maximize the positive effects but minimize the negative impacts of globalization is a major concern in current educational reform for national and local developments.
6. Globalization of Education and Multiple Theories
The thought of writing this paper was influenced by the multiple theories propounded by Yin Cheng, (2002). He proposed a typology of multiple theories that can be used to conceptualize and practice fostering local knowledge in globalization particularly through globalized education. These theories of fostering local knowledge is proposed to address this key concern, namely as the theory of tree, theory of crystal, theory of birdcage, theory of DNA, theory of fungus, and theory of amoeba. Their implications for design of curriculum and instruction and their expected educational outcomes in globalized education are correspondingly different.
The theory of tree assumes that the process of fostering local knowledge should have its roots in local values and traditions but absorb external useful and relevant resources from the global knowledge system to grow the whole local knowledge system inwards and outwards. The expected outcome in globalized education will be to develop a local person with international outlook, who will act locally and develop globally. The strength of this theory is that the local community can maintain and even further develop its traditional values and cultural identity as it grows and interacts with the input of external resources and energy in accumulating local knowledge for local developments.
The theory of crystal is the key of the fostering process to have "local seeds" to crystallize and accumulate the global knowledge along a given local expectation and demand. Therefore, fostering local knowledge is to accumulate global knowledge around some "local seeds" that may be to exist local demands and values to be fulfilled in these years. According to this theory, the design of curriculum and instruction is to identify the core local needs and values as the fundamental seeds to accumulate those relevant global knowledge and resources for education. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person who remains a local person with some global knowledge and can act locally and think locally with increasing global techniques. With local seeds to crystallize the global knowledge, there will be no conflict between local needs and the external knowledge to be absorbed and accumulated in the development of local community and individuals.
The theory of birdcage is about how to avoid the overwhelming and dominating global influences on the nation or local community. This theory contends that the process of fostering local knowledge can be open for incoming global knowledge and resources but at the same time efforts should be made to limit or converge the local developments and related interactions with the outside world to a fixed framework. In globalized education, it is necessary to set up a framework with clear ideological boundaries and social norms for curriculum design such that all educational activities can have a clear local focus when benefiting from the exposure of wide global knowledge and inputs. The expected educational outcome is to develop a local person with bounded global outlook, who can act locally with filtered global knowledge. The theory can help to ensure local relevance in globalized education and avoid any loss of local identity and concerns during globalization or international exposure.
The theory of DNA represents numerous initiatives and reforms have made to remove dysfunctional local traditions and structures in country of periphery and replace them with new ideas borrowed from core countries. This theory emphasizes on identifying and transplanting the better key elements from the global knowledge to replace the existing weaker local components in the local developments. In globalizing education, the curriculum design should be very selective to both local and global knowledge with aims to choose the best elements from them. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person with locally and globally mixed elements, who can act and think with mixed local and global knowledge. The strength of this theory is its openness for any rational investigation and transplant of valid knowledge and elements without any local barrier or cultural burden. It can provide an efficient way to learn and improve the existing local practices and developments.
The theory of fungus reflects the mode of fostering local knowledge in globalization. This theory assumes that it is a faster and easier way to digest and absorb certain relevant types of global knowledge for nutrition of individual and local developments, than to create their own local knowledge from the beginning. From this theory, the curriculum and instruction should aim at enabling students to identify and learn what global knowledge is valuable and necessary to their own developments as well as significant to the local community. In globalizing education, the design of education activities should aim at digesting the complex global knowledge into appropriate forms that can feed the needs of individuals and their growth. The expected educational outcome is to develop a person equipped certain types of global knowledge, who can act and think dependently of relevant global knowledge and wisdom. Strengths of the theory is for some small countries, easily digest and absorb the useful elements of global knowledge than to produce their own local knowledge from the beginning. The roots for growth and development are based on the global knowledge instead of local culture or value.
The theory of amoeba is about the adaptation to the fasting changing global environment and the economic survival in serious international competitions. This theory considers that fostering local knowledge is only a process to fully use and accumulate global knowledge in the local context. Whether the accumulated knowledge is really local or the local values can be preserved is not a major concern. According to this theory, the curriculum design should include the full range of global perspectives and knowledge to totally globalize education in order to maximize the benefit from global knowledge and become more adaptive to changing environment. Therefore, to achieve broad international outlook and apply global knowledge locally and globally is crucial in education. And, cultural burdens and local values can be minimized in the design of curriculum and instruction in order to let students be totally open for global learning. The expected educational outcome is to develop a flexible and open person without any local identity, who can act and think globally and fluidly. The strengths of this theory are also its limitations particularly in some culturally fruit countries. There will be potential loss of local values and cultural identity in the country and the local community will potentially lose its direction and social solidarity during overwhelming globalization.
Each country or local community may have its unique social, economic and cultural contexts and therefore, its tendency to using one theory or a combination of theories from the typology in globalized education may be different from the other. To a great extent, it is difficult to say one is better than other even though the theories of tree, birdcage and crystal may be more preferred in some culturally rich countries. For those countries with less cultural assets or local values, the theories of amoeba and fungus may be an appropriate choice for development. However, this typology can provide a wide spectrum of alternatives for policy-makers and educators to conceptualize and formulate their strategies and practices in fostering local knowledge for the local developments. See more about the theories in Cheng (2002; 11-18)
7. Education Progress since Independence in Tanzania
During the first phase of Tanzania political governance (1961-1985) the Arusha Declaration, focusing on "Ujamaa" (African socialism) and self-reliance was the major philosophy. The nationalization of the production and provision of goods and services by the state and the dominance of ruling party in community mobilization and participation highlighted the "Ujamaa" ideology, which dominated most of the 1967-1985 eras. In early 1970s, the first phase government embarked on an enormous national campaign for universal access to primary education, of all children of school going age. It was resolved that the nation should have attained universal primary education by 1977. The ruling party by that time Tanganyika African National Union (TANU), under the leadership of the former and first president of Tanzania Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere, directed the government to put in place mechanisms for ensuring that the directive, commonly known as the Musoma Resolution, was implemented. The argument behind that move was essentially that, as much as education was a right to each and every citizen, a government that is committed to the development of an egalitarian socialist society cannot segregate and discriminate her people in the provision of education, especially at the basic level.
7.1. The Presidential Commission on Education
In 1981, a Presidential Commission on education was appointed to review the existing system of education and propose necessary changes to be realized by the country towards the year 2000. The Commission submitted its report in March 1982 and the government has implemented most of its recommendation. The most significant ones related to this paper were the establishment of the Teachers' Service Commission (TSC), the Tanzania Professional Teachers Association, the introduction of new curriculum packages at primary, secondary and teacher education levels, the establishment of the Faculty of Education (FoE) at the University of Dar-es-Salaam, the introduction of pre-primary teacher education programme; and the expansion of secondary education.
7.2. Education during the Second Phase Government of Tanzania
The second phase government of Tanzania spanning from 1985 to 1995, was characterized by new liberal ideas such as free choice, market-oriented schooling and cost efficiency, reduced the government control of the UPE and other social services. The education sector lacked quality teachers as well as teaching/learning materials and infrastructure to address the expansion of the UPE. A vacuum was created while fragmented donor driven projects dominated primary education support. The introduced cost sharing in the provision of social services like education and health hit most the poorest of the poor. This decrease in government support in the provision of social services including education as well as cost-sharing policies were not taken well, given that most of the incomes were below the poverty line. In 1990, the government constituted a National Task Force on education to review the existing education system and recommend a suitable education system for the 21st century.
The report of this task force, the Tanzania Education System for the 21st Century, was submitted to the government in November 1992. Recommendations of the report have been taken into consideration in the formulation of the Tanzania Education and Training Policy (TETP). In spite of the very impressive expansionary education policies and reforms in the 1970s, the goal to achieve UPE, which was once targeted for achievement in 1980, is way out of reach. Similarly, the Jomtien objective to achieve Basic Education for all in 2000 is on the part of Tanzania unrealistic. The participation and access level have declined to the point that attainment of UPE is once again an issue in itself. Other developments and trends indicate a decline in the quantitative goals set rather than being closer to them (Cooksey and Reidmiller, 1997; Mbilinyi, 2000). At the same time serious doubt is being raised about school quality and relevance of education provided (Galabawa, Senkoro and Lwaitama, (eds), 2000).
7.3. Outcomes of UPE
According to Galabawa (2001), the UPE describing, analysis and discussing explored three measures in Tanzania: (1) the measure of access to first year of primary education namely, the apparent intake rate. This is based on the total number of new entrants in the first grade regardless of age. This number is in turn expressed as a percentage of the population at the official primary school entrance age and the net intake rate based on the number of new entrants in the first grade who are of the official primary school entrance age expressed as percentage of the population of corresponding age. (2) The measure of participation, namely, gross enrolment ratio representing the number of children enrolled in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the official primary school age population; while the net enrolment ratio corresponds to the number of children of the official primary school age enrolled in primary school expressed as a percentage of corresponding population. (3) The measure of internal efficiency of education system, which reflect the dynamics of different operational decision making events over the school cycle like dropouts, promotions and repetitions.
7.3.1. Access to Primary Education
The absolute numbers of new entrants to grade one of primary school cycles have grown steadily since 1970s. The number of new entrants increased from around 400,000 in 1975 to 617,000 in 1990 and to 851,743 in 2000, a rise of 212.9 percent in relative terms. The apparent (gross) intake rate was high at around 80% in the 1970s dropping to 70% in 1975 and rise up to 77% in 2000. This level reflects the shortcomings in primary education provision. Tanzania is marked by wide variations in both apparent and net intake rates-between urban and rural districts with former performing higher. Low intake rates in rural areas reflect the fact that many children do not enter schools at the official age of seven years.
7.3.2. Participation in Primary Education
The regression in the gross and net primary school enrolment ratios; the exceptionally low intake at secondary and vocational levels; and, the general low internal efficiency of the education sector have combined to create a UPE crisis in Tanzania's education system (Education Status Report, 2001). There were 3,161,079 primary pupils in Tanzania in 1985 and, in the subsequent decade primary enrolment rose dramatically by 30% to 4,112,167 in 1999. These absolute increases were not translated into gross/net enrolment rates, which actually experienced a decline threatening the sustainability of quantitative gains. The gross enrolment rate, which was 35.1% in late 1960's and early 1970s', grew appreciably to 98.0% in 1980 when the net enrolment rate was 68%. (ibid)
7.3.3. Internal Efficiency in Primary Education
The input/output ratio shows that it takes an average of 9.4 years (instead of planned 7 years) for a pupil to complete primary education. The extra years are due to starting late, drop-outs, repetition and high failure rate which is pronounced at standard four where a competency/mastery examination is administered (ESDP, 1999, p.84). The drive towards UPE has been hampered by high wastage rates.
7.4. Education during the Third Phase Government of Tanzania
The third phase government spanning the period from 1995 to date, intends to address both income and non-income poverty so as to generate capacity for provision and consumption of better social services. In order to address these income and non-income poverty the government formed the Tanzania Vision 2025. Vision 2025 targets at high quality livelihood for all Tanzanians through the realization of UPE, the eradication of illiteracy and the attainment of a level of tertiary education and training commensurate with a critical mass of high quality human resources required to effectively respond to the developmental challenges at all level. In order to revitalize the whole education system the government established the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) in this period. Within the ESDP, there two education development plans already in implementation, namely: (a) The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP); and (b) The Secondary Education Development Plan (SEDP).
8. Prospects and Challenges of Primary of Education Sector
Since independence, The government has recognised the central role of education in achieving the overall development goal of improving the quality of life of Tanzanians through economic growth and poverty reduction. Several policies and structural reforms have been initiated by the Government to improve the quality of education at all levels. These include: Education for Self-Reliance, 1967; Musoma Resolution, 1974; Universal Primary Education (UPE), 1977; Education and Training Policy (ETP), 1995; National Science and Technology Policy, 1995; Technical Education and Training Policy, 1996; Education Sector Development Programme, 1996 and National Higher Education Policy, 1999. The ESDP of 1996 represented for the first time a Sector-Wide Approach to education development to redress the problem of fragmented interventions. It called for pooling together of resources (human, financial and materials) through the involvement of all key stakeholders in education planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation (URT, 1998 quoted in MoEC 2005b). The Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP) provided the institutional framework.
Challenges include the considerable shortage of classrooms, a shortage of well qualified and expert teachers competent to lead their learners through the new competency based curriculum and learning styles, and the absence of an assessment and examination regime able to reinforce the new approaches and reward students for their ability to demonstrate what they know understand and can do. At secondary level there is a need to expand facilities necessary as a result of increased transition rates. A major challenge is the funding gap, but the government is calling on its development partners to honour the commitments made at Dakar, Abuja, etc, to respond positively to its draft Ten Year Plan. A number of systemic changes are at a critical stage, including decentralisation, public service reform, strengthening of financial management and mainstreaming of ongoing project and programmes. The various measures and interventions introduced over the last few years have been uncoordinated and unsynchronised. Commitment to a sector wide approach needs to be accompanied by careful attention to secure coherence and synergy across sub-sectoral elements. (Woods, 2007).
9. Education and School Leadership in Tanzania and the Impacts
Education and leadership in primary education sector in Tanzania has passed through various periods as explained in the stages above. The school leadership major reformation was maintained and more decentralized in the implementation of the PEDP from the year 2000 to date. This paper is also more concerned with the implementation of globalization driven policies that influence the subjectivity of education changes. It is changing to receive what Tjeldvoll et al. (2004:1; quoted in Makule, 2008) considers as "the new managerial responsibilities". These responsibilities are focused to increase accountability, equity and quality in education which are global agenda, because it is through these, the global demands in education will be achieved. In that case school leadership in Tanzania has changed. The change observed is due to the implementation of decentralization of both power and fund to the low levels such as schools. School leadership now has more autonomy over the resources allocated to school than it was before decentralization. It also involves community in all the issues concerning the school improvement.
10. Prospects and Challenges of School Leadership
10.1. Prospects
The decentralization of both power and funds from the central level to the low level of education such as school and community brought about various opportunities. Openness, community participation and improved efficiency mentioned as among the opportunities obtained with the current changes on school leadership. There is improved accountability, capacity building and educational access to the current changes on school leadership. This is viewed in strong communication network established in most of the schools in the country. Makule (2008) in her study found out that the network was effective where every head teacher has to send to the district various school reports such as monthly report, three month report, half a year report, nine month report and one year report. In each report there is a special form in which a head teacher has to feel information about school. The form therefore, give account of activities that takes place at school such as information about the uses of the funds and the information about attendance both teacher and students, school buildings, school assets, meetings, academic report, and school achievement and problems encountered. The effect of globalization forces on school leadership in Tanzania has in turn forced the government to provide training and workshop for school leadership (MoEC, 2005b). The availability of school leadership training, whether through workshop or training course, considered to be among the opportunities available for school leadership in Tanzania
10.2. Challenges
Like all countries, Tanzania is bracing itself for a new century in every respect. The dawn of the new millennium brings in new changes and challenges of all sectors. The Education and Training sector has not been spared for these challenges. This is, particularly important in recognition of adverse/implications of globalisation for developing states including Tanzania. For example, in the case of Tanzania, globalisation entails the risks of increased dependence and marginalisation and thus human resource development needs to play a central role to redress the situation. Specifically, the challenges include the globalisation challenges, access and equity, inclusive or special needs education, institutional capacity building and the HIV/aids challenge.
11. Conclusion
There are five types of local knowledge and wisdom to be pursued in globalized education, including the economic and technical knowledge, human and social knowledge, political knowledge, cultural knowledge, and educational knowledge for the developments of individuals, school institutions, communities, and the society. Although globalisation is linked to a number of technological and other changes which have helped to link the world more closely, there are also ideological elements which have strongly influenced its development. A "free market" dogma has emerged which exaggerates both the wisdom and role of markets, and of the actors in those markets, in the organisation of human society. Fashioning a strategy for responsible globalisation requires an analysis which separates that which is dogma from that which is inevitable. Otherwise, globalisation is an all too convenient excuse and explanation for anti-social policies and actions including education which undermine progress and break down community. Globalisation as we know it has profound social and political implications. It can bring the threat of exclusion for a large portion of the world's population, severe problems of unemployment, and growing wage and income disparities. It makes it more and more difficult to deal with economic policy or corporate behaviour on a purely national basis. It also has brought a certain loss of control by democratic institutions of development and economic policy.

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Analytical Essay Practice Can Help You A Great Deal

In the college level, you will find that not every student has the ability to think analytically. This is why there is a disparity between the better performing students and the not so well doing ones. At the college or campus level, every student is required to have an analytical mind. It is from these kinds of mind that we get the best analytical essays worth the campus student level.
In definition, an analytical essay is one that has been backed by a series of processes; they include determining the ideal topic, doing extensive and exhaustive research on it, gathering the necessary information and then interpreting this information through the essay. Any term paper you come across from a student will tell you whether they did a proper preparation on the topic or not. The sad part is that a good number of students have no idea on how to come up with an analytical essay. Many will present to you a series of ideas thrown here and there and no general flow in the essays. This is why you need to understand what analytical writing is all about to earn the grades you deserve.
Getting to write an analytical essay will first need you to organize your thoughts together. Analytical essays are a representation of a person's ideas put in writing. Learning how to write analytically can be a great stepping stone to getting better grades in school. And it all begins with determining the best analytical essay topics to write one.
Ideal analytical essay topics are those that are researchable and results can actually be concluded from them. All you have to do is identify a problem in your environment that needs serious addressing. Remember you are just honing your analytical skills so you don't have to perfect everything. A suitable problem could be like "increased crime in society". From such a topic you will be required to establish the variables, which in this case may be the cause of a rise in crime, then use these parameters to carry out your research.
Once the data is collected you then find a suitable plan to present the findings beginning with a hypothesis for the whole research and ending with a conclusion on what you found out. If your first research becomes successful, your road to achieving analytical thinking is paved. Writing a sample analytical essay is mainly used to help you thinking critically in an analyzing way on the surrounding. The general format of analytical essays is the introductory, the body analysis, your own personal views on the analysis and then the final conclusion.
Now you don't have to go out there and dig hard for a suitable topic to write in; you can even find analytical essay topics in news events, books and even art works. From these areas you can come up with research topics that are rich in content and will help you in establishing a basis for your argument. But always make sure you understand the topics and if need be go through them several times.
The process of repetitive review on the topic will assist you in writing a meaningful thesis or the hypothesis which determines the direction the whole essay takes. Thus always take your time on the topic for better results. You will also be required to do a thorough research on the topic; writing the analytical essay in the correct format is not enough, if you don't put the right content in the paper then the whole process was a waste. By right content we mean delivering meaningful content that is rich in information.
There are lots of places where you can gather information to put in the essay paper. The readily available place for you is the internet and you can combine this with books to get as many information as possible. And as you get the info you require for the essay body, don't forget to write down the references that will end up on the last page.
Getting to think analytically through an essay is the best reward any student can ever give themselves. This specially involves those in colleges and universities; if you could get to think critically and analytically, you will never suffer bad grades in your performance. Analytical thinking is the tool many students lack and which contributes to the fall in performance. To be on the safe side, make sure you possess all the skills you can gain to write analytically. You can get this info from books or journals dealing with writing. The internet also has a lot of information on how to write analytically; you only need to Google a few web pages and write down a few notes and you are good to go. But make sure you implement all the tips and skills you gain about analytical writing.

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How to Source a Good English Language Proofreader or Copy Editor

If you are wondering how to ensure your report or essay is as good as it can be, finding a skilled and reliable English language proofreader is easier said than done, however, the following should help act as a guide on how to source and when to use a proofreader.
A good English proofreading service should offer a comprehensive check of your document in either British Standard or American Standard English of spelling, grammar, sentence contextualisation and repetitive wording. If the service includes editing (whether that be on paper or editing online), you should look to have the flow of the writing improved where necessary. Professional editing includes common phraseology, proverbs and sayings being checked for correct usage and words that are used incorrectly or sentences that are unclear should be changed or rearranged. Each proofreader has his or her own standards and should inform you of these, in clear terms, before commencing work. These are very different services to writing services or essay writing services, whereby copy is written from scratch.
Most proofreaders offer online editing and charge a set amount based on the number of words in your document and the turnaround time, and most professionals will require either a sample of your writing or to see the document in advance before quoting on a job.
Therefore, you need to ensure that your proofreader is up to the editorial job. Proofreading requires patience, attention to detail and, rather obviously, a thorough understanding of the rules that govern his or her language; it is not simply a matter of crossing the 't's and dotting the 'i's. It can be a laborious task requiring hour after hour of concentration, not only reading and understanding the text within an often complex dissertation, but simultaneously thinking 'how is this written and can it be written better?' Understanding the overall meaning of the text and being able to improve it without altering that original meaning requires an ability to comprehend a wide variety of subjects, a good level of education (post graduate qualifications are usually the minimum for editors) and skill at writing. That combined with good time management skills means that not everyone who can read can proofread.
There are many sound reasons for proofreading or copy editing your text, both within the business world and academia. For instance, a website that is poorly written and that lacks clarity could mean potential customers quickly leave your site, largely because within five seconds of entering your site they need to know what is available, where and when. Equally, poor grammar and spelling will look hugely unprofessional and portray a lack of attention to detail in the service offered.
For tertiary level students, leaving linguistic mistakes in an essay or research proposal is inadvisable. By the time students reach universities in the UK, tutors expect that they should be able to write articulate essays which do not contain basic grammatical errors or garbled language. Failure to live up to these expectations could mean that even though your ideas may be brilliant, your writing skills will let you down. Therefore, having your essays or thesis proofread and, at the very least, having a grammar check is a worthwhile investment.
Equally for academics, sending off an article or research paper to a publishing house which lacks clarity and contains unwieldy wording, lessens your chances of publication. Many peer reviewers also bemoan the unintelligible language of their peers' work and are inclined to give less favourable reviews if reading the paper is a feat of endurance. Editing copy is essential to ensure that articles are fit for publication.
Writing your thesis statement or lengthy thesis on your topic is often a labour of love and it is difficult to spot the small mistakes; a good proofreader can offer an unbiased second opinion on the clarity of your document. Therefore, having that professional eye cast over your text, editing and checking on your behalf, can be an invaluable service.

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Disputing Suicide Advocacy for the Sickly: A Model Essay in Developmental English/Writing Textbooks

"The Right to Die," by Norman Cousins:
Published by Pearson, McGraw-Hill, and Cengage
Wordsmith--a Developmental English/Writing textbook by Pamela Arlov at Pearson Higher Education-includes "The Right to Die," by Norman Cousins as one of its model essays in the Argument (Persuasive)/Social Issues categories. This essay is about the suicide of Dr. Henry Van Dusen and his wife, Elizabeth. They had become increasingly feeble over the years and felt that their lives were being prolonged artificially beyond human dignity. Importantly, Dr. Van Dusen had been the president of Union Theological Seminary; he was a famous voice in American Protestant ethics for over a quarter century-hardly your typical case for suicide advocacy. The caption under the article's title states, "Suicide is traditionally considered a tragedy, even a sin. Under certain circumstances, can it be considered a triumph over a slow and painful death?"
An Internet search shows how popular this article has become. McGraw-Hill offers the essay through Primis On-Line and Cornerstones. The Familiar Essay, by Mark R. Christensen includes "The Right to Die also through Cengage. Cyberessays reports that the states of Washington and Montana passed a Right to Die law in 2009.
Dr. Van Dusen left behind a brief note asking if the individual has the obligation to go on living when all beauty, meaning, and power of life are gone. Isn't it a misuse of medical technology to keep the terminally ill alive when there are so many hungry mouths to feed? What if there's nothing left to give or receive from life? Why should an unnatural form of living be considered better than an unnatural way of dying?
Exercising free will can mean suicide, according to Dr. Van Dusen. A call for the exercise of free will is quite common in philosophical and theological literature, and Dr. Van Dusen wrote on free will extensively during his career. Despair and pain weren't given as reasons for The Van Dusens' justifying of suicide.
Importantly, Norman Cousins admits that suicide is alien to the theological tradition of the Van Dusens, as it is in most cultures. However, no comment was made in this article about the kamikaze phase in World War II Japan or the current Islamic extremists. The Van Dusens regretted that their children and grandchildren may be saddened and not accept their decision. Yet Dr. Van Dusen believed that theologians and all of us should debate his case for suicide for the terminally sickly.
In concluding, Cousins asserts, "Death is not the greatest loss in life. The greatest loss is what dies inside us while we live. The unbearable tragedy is to live without dignity or sensitivity."
My initial reaction to this essay was shock that assisted suicide for the sickly would be a topic in a Developmental English or College Composition course, as opposed to maybe an advanced medical ethics or philosophy course. I wouldn't risk the appearance of trying to euthanize the grandparents of remedial students. Having a disability for COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) myself makes me a bit squeamish when I hear a call for suicide of the chronically ill.
Once suicide is approved under these circumstances, the cases for acceptable suicide could become extended. What if one felt he or she was too poor to have a dignified existence? The extremely poor can earn as much as $1000/month. Maybe the chronically unemployed or those with a flawed background check could make a case for their own death too. An elderly neighbor feels that there are two unforgivable sins: blasphemy against the Holy Spirit and suicide. Fortunately, the former seems like the most unlikely and esoteric possible form of swearing. My neighbor's views are probably considerably more common than advocacy for suicide of the sickly.
On another note, I wrote this article twice: 2011 & 2015--before and after getting on Medicaid/Medicare. Back in 2011, I recalled adding mullein leaves (gordolobo) to my coffee pot this morning to help my breathing. This time Mexican herbal cures worked better than traditional medicine over that week-including albuterol for my nebulizer, generic Mucinex, and prednisone. There were also some eucalyptus leaves and whole garlic pieces in that odd drip coffee bin, which had been ineffectual without the gordolobo. At least in Texas, you can buy a package of gordolobo or eucalyptus leaves for $1 each in the Mexican spice and herb section of the grocery store. Now I'm prescribed lung medicine that I never heard about previously because I have a pulmonologist.
Later I stumbled upon a story about the later life of Norman Cousins (1915-1990) at Norman Cousins was the longtime editor of the Saturday Review and had received hundreds of wards, including the United Nations Peace Medal and nearly fifty honorary doctorate degrees. But in 1965, Cousins became very ill with ankylosing spondylitis, "a degenerative disease, causing the breakdown of collagen." It was believed that the writer would die within a few months, and he was almost completely paralyzed. But Cousins found a way to cure himself, not kill himself; he checked out of the hospital and started taking massive amounts of Vitamin C and watching funny movies! Cousins regained the use of his limbs and he returned to his full-time job at the Saturday Review. Cousins later wrote a book on his ordeal, Anatomy of an Illness in 1979. Thus Cousins chose life over suicide unlike Dr. Van Dusen. I'm glad that Earvin "Magic" Johnson chose life, as today is the twentieth anniversary of his announcement of retiring from pro basketball due to contracting the HIV virus.
On the other hand, Wordsmith was a strong textbook overall, and I gained a lot from her description of the writing process especially. I'll always remember Pam Arlov's assertion to make your concluding statement sound final. Ms. Arlov included engaging pictures throughout the text too. Capitalization was my favorite grammar chapter section. To conclude, textbooks are long enough for an instructor to pick and choose among many model essay choices.

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